Jeffrey Silver Humanism in Healthcare Research Roundup – February 2018

The Jeffrey Silver Humanism in Healthcare Research Roundup features summaries of recently published studies on humanism in healthcare. To receive email notification of new studies once per month, enter your information here and select “Jeffrey Silver Research Roundup” from the checkboxes at the bottom. See previous posts in this series.

Publications from Gold Foundation-Affiliated Authors

Do Gold Humanism Honor Society inductees differ from their peers in empathy, patient-centeredness, tolerance of ambiguity, coping style, and perception of the learning environment?
Gaufberg E, Dunham L, Krupat E, Stansfield B, Christianson C, Skochelak S.  Teach Learn Med. 2018 Jan 24:1-10.

Dr. Gaufberg is the Jean and Harvey Picker Director of the Gold Foundation Research Institute.
Researchers used data from the American Medical Association Learning Environment Study (LES) data set to explore attitudinal correlates associated with students who are nominated by peers to the Gold Humanism Honor Society. They found that GHHS student members scored significantly higher on average over 4 years than non-GHHS inductees on clinical empathy, patient-centered beliefs, and tolerance of ambiguity. GHHS students reported higher levels of empathy and patient-centeredness at medical school matriculation. This difference persists in the fourth year of medical school and when controlling for time, race, gender, and school.

Mixed-methods approach to humanistic interprofessional faculty development
Fornari A, Tortez LM, Lay M, Hirsch B, Tanzi D, Friedman I, Ricardo AP, Pekmezaris R, Branch W.  J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2018 Jan 16.

This study was supported by a grant from the Gold Foundation.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Mentoring and Professionalism in Training (MAP-IT) program, a longitudinal, interprofessional faculty development curriculum designed to enhance clinicians’ humanistic mentoring skills, specifically nurses and physicians. Across two cohorts, high potential mentors demonstrated significant increases in perceptions of humanistic teaching skills. During objective structured teaching simulations, significant increases were also found in mentors’ self-reported mentoring skills and their skills as rated by a standardized RN/MD. The MAP-IT program was determined to be a feasible strategy to positively impact the personal and professional development of nurses and physicians.

Improving communication with surrogate decision-makers: A pilot initiative
Meltzer EC, Shi Z, Suppes A, Hersh JE, Orlander JD, Calhoun AW, Tung J, Logio L, Manna R, Bialer PA, Acres CA, Fins JJ.  J Grad Med Educ. 2017 Aug;9(4):461-466.

This study was supported by a grant from the Gold Foundation.
This pilot study assesses the effectiveness of an experiential learning workshop that was conducted in a clinical setting, and aimed at improving resident physician communication skills with a focus on surrogate decision-making. Residents’ OSCE scores improved from pre-workshop to post-workshop, and the residents reported feeling more confident after the workshop.

A model to promote public health by adding evidence-based, empathy-enhancing programs to all undergraduate health-care curricula (free full text)
Van Winkle LJ, Schwartz BD, Michels N.  Front Public Health. 2017 Dec 11;5:339.
Drs. Schwartz and Michels are Mapping the Landscape grantees.
Authors consider methods used in selected studies for increasing empathy and relationship-centered characteristics, as well as an evidence-based model for incorporation of these approaches into health sciences education programs throughout training.

Long-term impacts faced by patients and families after harmful healthcare events.
Ottosen MJ, Sedlock EW, Aigbe AO, Bell SK, Gallagher TH, Thomas EJ.  J Patient Saf. 2018 Jan 17.

Dr. Bell is a Gold Professor.
Researchers performed a content analysis on 32 interviews originally conducted with patients or family members who experienced harmful medical events 5 or more years ago. Participants collectively described the following four long-term impacts: psychological, social/behavioral, physical, and financial. Most cited psychological impacts, more than half reported ongoing physical impacts and one-third experienced ongoing financial impacts. Long-term social and behavioral impacts such as alterations in lifestyle, self-identity, and healthcare seeking behaviors were the most highly reported.

Twelve tips for teaching the informed consent conversation
Rock L, Anandaiah A.  Medical Teacher, 2018 Jan 23.

Dr. Rock is a Mapping the Landscape grantee.
The process of obtaining informed consent is complex, challenging, and warrants focused teaching, observation and feedback. Authors provide a roadmap for teaching the essential components of how to obtain informed consent, including both content and communication skills, with a focus on common pitfalls for trainees, and strategies to address them.

Medical students’ exposure to the humanities correlates with positive personal qualities and reduced burnout: A multi-Institutional U.S. survey
Mangione S, Chakraborti C, Staltari G, Harrison R, Tunkel AR, Liou KT, Cerceo E, Voeller M, Bedwell WL, Fletcher K, Kahn MJ.  J Gen Intern Med. 2018 Jan 29.
Dr. Mangione received a grant from the Gold Foundation Research Institute.
Researchers conducted a survey of over 700 medical students at five medical schools. Students reported their exposure to the humanities (e.g., music, literature, theater, visual arts) and completed rating scales measuring selected personal qualities. Analyses showed that exposure to the humanities was significantly correlated with positive personal qualities (empathy, tolerance for ambiguity, wisdom, emotional appraisal, self-efficacy and spatial skills), while it was significantly and inversely correlated with some components of burnout.

Medical students’ empathy for vulnerable groups: Results from a survey and reflective writing assignment
Wellbery C, Saunders PA, Kureshi S, Visconti A.  Acad Med. 2017 Dec;92(12):1709-1714

Dr. Wellbery received a grant from the Gold Foundation Research Institute.
Researchers analyzed 130 students’ Social Empathy Index scores at the beginning and end of a population health course as well as the students’ reflective essays about the challenges of caring for vulnerable patients. Scores for the contextual understanding of systemic barriers domain increased significantly. Students’ essays revealed three themes relating to individual empathy as the foundation for social empathy: civic and moral obligations, and the role of institutional practices in caring for vulnerable groups.

Other Publications

Patient-centered communication behaviors that correlate with higher patient satisfaction scores
Finefrock, D, Patel S, Zodda D, Nyirenda T, Nierenberg R, Feldman J, Ogedegbe, C. J Patient Exp. 2018 Jan 15.
Authors wanted to learn whether specific communication behaviors correlate with higher patient satisfaction scores in the emergency department setting. They performed 191 bedside observations and recorded the frequency of 8 positive communication behaviors as defined by the PatientSET tool. They found that clinicians who were known to have high Press Ganey patient satisfaction scores had a higher frequency of performance in 6 of the 8 PatientSET communication behaviors.

Compassion practices, nurse well-being, and ambulatory patient experience ratings
McClelland LE, Gabriel AS, DePuccio MJ.  Med Care. 2018 Jan;56(1):4-10.
Researchers examined data from a survey of 177 ambulatory nurses at an academic medical center as well as patient experience ratings from over 3,500 adult patients.  They found that compassion practices were positively associated with nurse well-being and patient perceptions of the care experience in outpatient clinics. Supplemental analyses provide preliminary evidence that nurse well-being mediates the relationship between compassion practices and patient ratings of their care experience.

Brandy King, MLIS

Head of Information Services

Provides research services for staff, maintains resources on humanism and healthcare and works closely with Research Institute grantees.